This is a beginner’s guide for understanding Monitoring fundamentals and different components of Monitoring.



English definition: the act of observing something (and sometimes keeping a record of it)

Is this the exact definition of Monitoring? — If we were to ask 10 different persons related to different industries about monitoring, we would get 11 different answers.

So, What exactly do we mean by Monitoring?

Definition of Monitoring

Therefore, in this blog, we will try to obtain a definition of monitoring for software developers and administrators in the operation of production computer systems, such as the applications, tools, databases, and networks backing popular websites.

So now that, we have narrowed down the context, we can discuss why monitoring is required and what are the basic components of monitoring for computer systems.

Benefits of Monitoring

Therefore, it is expected that the monitoring stack will keep track of data from those components. However, data might come in several forms which can be used for different purposes.

Alerting is one of the standard uses of monitoring data. Getting alerts of the event when things are going wrong is usually the most important thing that you want monitoring for. You want the monitoring system to call in a human to take a look.

Monitoring can help us to maintain healthy systems and also helps us to debug any components of system software due to which performance is getting affected.

Monitoring Components

  1. Metrics
  2. Logging
  3. Tracing
  4. Alerting
  5. Visualization


For example, you can find out how many requests per second were served but not the exact time for a specific request, and without context, you won’t know the ID of the requests.

Examples of metrics-based monitoring systems include the Prometheus stack.


Logs contain the entire stack trace of the exception in case of errors, which allows us to view and debug issues originating from systems easily. In short, logs can tell you what happened in the system at a certain time.

Examples of logging-based monitoring systems include the EFK stack and Grafana Loki.


A trace represents a single user’s journey through an entire stack of an application. It is often used for optimization purposes. For example, you would use it to establish little used part of a stack or bottlenecks within specific parts of the stack.

Examples of tracing systems include Jaeger and Zipkin.



To summarize the definition of monitoring

Monitoring is the process of collecting, aggregating, and analyzing the events to improve awareness of the components’ characteristics and behaviour. The data from various components of the software are collected into a monitoring system that is responsible for storage, aggregation, visualization, and initiating automated responses when the values meet specific requirements.

With this, we briefly discussed some of the concepts that are required to understand Monitoring. There are different monitoring stack available that is implemented using metrics, logging or tracing systems. Examples of such stacks include Prometheus stack, EFK stack, and many more.

Thanks for Reading!

Software Engineer writing about software and technology.